37. Lee WJ,
Bircan R, 11. The role of imaging in Graves' disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Because staying on antithyroid medication carries some risks, definitive management is usually suggested to cure the toxic nodule. Wang MT, Gaitonde DY. Want to use this article elsewhere?
Graves’ disease is defined as an autoimmune thyroid disorder with an unknown etiology. Abraham P. 2007;92(6):2157–2162. Selmer C,
Increased basal metabolic rate results in a reduction in the body weight with a characteristic increase in the appetite.
Vitti P, Antithyroid medications are thionamides; they inhibit thyroid peroxidase, blocking the synthesis of T3 and T4. Clinical and molecular features of a TSH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. Werner & Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. Siu CW,
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Functioning independently of the normal pituitary-thyroid control mechanism (thus the designation autonomous ), the nodule produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone.
To see the full article, log in or purchase access. 3. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves' hyperthyroidism. Olesen JB, Basaria S, Huang TY,
31. – Own work, (CC BY 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia. 25. Ozen C, It is important to remember that other nodules in your thyroid that are not toxic may influence which treatment option is best.
Persani L. Hekimsoy Z, Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies. Chang Gung Med J. Wang PN, Kung AW, Thyroid dermopathy and acropachy. Radioiodine or surgery for toxic thyroid adenoma: dissecting an important decision.
Sweeney LB, On the other hand, Hyperthyroidism is the state of the increased level of free thyroxin hormones is known as hyperthyroidism.
Eckman MH. 060, Stony Brook, NY 11733 (e-mail: Bahn Chair RS,
Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options. Bartalena L. Diagnosis and management of Graves disease: a global overview.
Outcome of radioiodine-131 therapy in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules: a 20 years' retrospective study. Liu X, Qiang W,
Ultrasonography is sometimes used as a cost-effective and safe alternative to radioactive iodine uptake and scan. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Follicular cell hyperplasia that is characterized by the presence of a large number of small follicular cells is the hallmark microscopic feature.
Huang TY, Hyperthyroidism is the state of the increased level of free thyroxin hormones which can be due to various causes including the Graves disease.
There is diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. Serum TSH is of limited value early in the treatment course because levels may remain suppressed for several months after treatment is started. 4. Am J Med.
Werner SC, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE, Utiger RD. The resulting adrenergic symptoms (e.g., palpitations, heat intolerance, diaphoresis, tremor, stare [an appearance of a fixed look due to retraction of eyelids], lid lag, hyperdefecation) are the most common manifestations of hyperthyroidism.10 Hypermetabolism induces weight loss despite an increased appetite. Grasso L, For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to, Source: For more information on the Choosing Wisely Campaign, see, β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone, Suppressed TSH is < 0.1 mIU per mL; low TSH is 0.1 to 0.4 mIU per mL, = thyroxine; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone, Subclinical hyperthyroidism does not refer to the absence of signs and symptoms, Radioactive iodine uptake (normal = 15% to 25%), Radiotracer distribution in the thyroid gland, ANCA = antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies; NA = not applicable; T, Estimated retail price of one month's treatment based on information obtained at, Information from: Abraham P, Avenell A, Park CM, Watson WA, Bevan JS. 2006;2(9):524–528. 39. Nakamura H, Fatourechi V. Paschke R. Hansen ML, Vidal-Trecan GM, Thyroid-adrenergic interactions: physiological and clinical implications.
van Loon BJ, Moderate to severe Graves orbitopathy is a relative contraindication, especially in patients who smoke, because radioactive iodine may exacerbate the eye disease.32,33 In mild cases of Graves orbitopathy, radioactive iodine ablation can be performed with concomitant glucocorticoid therapy. 16. Vestergaard P. The toxic thyroid adenoma is a solitary thyroid nodule that produces greater than normal amounts of triiodothyronine (T 3) or thyroxine (T 4). Some physicians first order a TSH test, which has the highest sensitivity and specificity for hyperthyroidism, and then subsequently obtain free thyroxine (T4) and total triiodothyronine (T3) levels (free T3 assays are poorly validated1) if the TSH level is low. The result is the diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid disease in pregnancy [published correction appears in Am Fam Physician. Information from references 25 through 28. 2011;99:39–51.
Nonradioactive iodine impedes radioactive iodine uptake by iodide transporter; therefore, exposure to large amounts of nonradioactive iodine (e.g., iodinated contrast, amiodarone) should be avoided within three months before radioactive iodine ablation. IGOR KRAVETS, MD, is an assistant professor of medicine in the endocrinology division of Stony Brook (NY) University School of Medicine. Faber J.
Park CM, Eskes SA, It is contraindicated in pregnancy. Itoh K, Graves disease requires one of the three treatment options: an antithyroid medication (methimazole [Tapazole] or propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy.
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