is also mentioned.
Bald-Faced Hornet – Dolichovespula maculata, Family Apidae – Cuckoo, Carpenter, Digger, Bumble & Honey Bees, Family Sphecidae – Thread-Waisted Wasps, Mud Daubers, Superfamily Evanioidea – Aulacids, Ensigns, and Gasteruptids, Superfamily Ichneumonoidea – Braconids & Ichneumons, Symphyta – Sawflies, Horntails, & Wood Wasps, Auchenorrhyncha – Cicadas, hoppers & allies, Sternorrhyncha – Aphids, Scales, Mealybugs, Lycaenidae – Blues, Coppers, & Hairstreaks, Superfamily Pyraloidea – Pyralid and Snout Moths, Subfamily Arctiinae – Tiger and Lichen Moths, Cupressaceae – Redwood, Cypress, Arborvitae, Juniper, Hamamelidaceae – Witch Hazel, Sweet gum, Ironwood, Hippocastanaceae – Horse-Chestnuts & Buckeyes, Biological Control Agents for Aphids in Vegetable Crops. These flies most often capture their prey in flight and do not hesitate to attack butterflies, dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, nor wasps. parasitic on immature stages of other insects including Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera and Orthoptera. (1962) Robber flies of the world: the genera of the family Asilidae, U.S. Nat. Asilus crabroniformis (1758) is the type of the genus. Robber flies overwinter as larvae and pupate in the soil. Genera. The facial region has a convex profile with a characteristic dense bundle of bristles, called a "mystax". Each leg of the robber fly has a pair of strong claws to catch their prey before injecting a powerful poison. They live in soil, rotting stumps and logs, and similar moist organic material. Robber flies’ audacity is legendary; on the Internet, one can find many stories of robber flies attacking bees, wasps, large grasshoppers, even hummingbirds. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! When it's flying around, it buzzes noisily and is intimidating. Although predatory forms in the adult stage are present in other taxonomic groups of Diptera, the Asilidae are the most representative for the number of species and for uniformity of feeding behavior. The ratio tends to increase with decreasing size of the predator. Puncture is followed by the injection of saliva, whose active components perform two functions: the neurotoxins cause paralysis of the victim, while proteolytic enzymes lead to the breakup and liquefaction of internal tissues; in a short time the predator is able to feed by sucking the internal fluids through the alimentary canal. As with other robber flies, this species can inflict a painful bite if mishandled. Robber fly insects are a mixed blessing to gardeners; if they’re seriously perturbed, they can inflict a painful bite, but they also help rid the garden of harmful pests like grasshoppers, other flies, wasps, leafhoppers, white grubs and pupating beetles. Alpine species occur at altitudes exceeding 4000 meters.
The Asilidae are predators, both in the juvenile stage and the adult stage, and feed on small arthropods, mainly insects. The scape and pedicel are generally relatively short and hairy; the third segment (or first flagellomere) has an oval or oblong shape, is generally longer than the two basal segments, and bears a stylus generally composed of two segments, of which the basal is very short. What dyestuff used in lipstick and other cosmetics is made from the dried and ground bodies of certain cactus-eating insects? Egg-laying takes place, according to the species, with three different behaviors which relate to the structure and the morphology of the abdomen. The mystax helps protect the head and face when the fly encounters prey bent on defense.
Pupae migrate to the soil surface and emerge as adults, often leaving behind their pupal casing. Adults lay eggs in the soil or in plants.
The larvae of most known asilids live in the soil or in the case of some taxonomic groups, in rotting organic material, usually wood and the bark of dead trees. Information on Robber Flies: Ecological Classification in Robber flies (Asilidae)", Photographic atlas and identification key to the robber flies of Germany (Diptera: Asilidae), "Studies of Asilidae (Diptera) systematics and evolution: I. Zootaxa 3031: 37–46 . Many have wings marked with darker patterns and they hold their wings outstretched. ... Scientific classification: Robber flies make up the family Asilidae in the insect order Diptera, the true flies. The green-eyed robber fly and other giant robber flies hunt relatively giant prey: bumble bees, carpenter bees, dragonflies, wasps, and so on. Less certain, however, is the mechanism of implementing entomophagy: in general, the behavior is cited as predation, but for some species may be ectoparasitoids. The order Orthoptera refers to the straight wings of grasshoppers and crickets. As their common name implies, robber flies have voracious appetites and feed on a vast array of other arthropods, which may help maintain a healthy balance between insect populations in various habitats (Joern and Rudd 1982, Shurovnekov 1962).
Bristles of this type are always present on the notopleuron (notopleural bristles) and, in two series, on mesonotum (dorsocentral, supralar and postalar). Much has been made of the speed and agility of these flies. Again, the Therevidae commonly have fluffy setae above the mouthparts, unlike the stiff chaetae comprising the mystax of the Asilidae. The mouthparts are short and modified for piercing-sucking. The egg is hyaline or pigmented and of variable shape from spherical to oval and up to 2 mm in length. Hull F.M.
The antennae are of the aristate type, composed typically of five segments but sometimes from three to four, depending on the structure of the stylus. In order to withstand the extreme winter, Robber Flies often overwinter in the soil as larvae or as pupa before emerging when they feel that the climatic conditions are favourable. Scientific classification: Robber flies make up the family Asilidae in the insect order Diptera, the true flies. The asilid pierces the integument of the prey with the prepharyx (hyopharynx) in preferential points of least resistance as the eyes, the membranous area of transition between the head and thorax (neck) or between thorax and abdomen, or between the last urotergiti.
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