felis domesticus classification
Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina. [62], The cat is digitigrade. [96][97] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others. National Science Foundation By the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Egyptian domestic cat lineage had arrived in a Baltic Sea port in northern Germany. [92] Domestic cats spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their homes, but can range many hundreds of meters from this central point. [22] The word may be derived from Germanic and Northern European languages, and ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. [47] Cats shed the outside layer of their claw sheaths when scratching rough surfaces. Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis, where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories. [90] In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[160]:33[161] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[160]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018. [64], Cats have protractable and retractable claws. Males are larger than females. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm (15 to 17 in). [112] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home. A raised tail indicates a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. [181] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers. "[224], According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. They produced a mean of 1.4 litters per year, but a maximum of three litters in a year. Of 169 kittens, 127 died before they were six months old due to a trauma caused in most cases by dog attacks and road accidents. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten. [214] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms. Species Felis catus domestic cat. Northern Sami gáđfi, "female stoat", and Hungarian hölgy, "stoat"; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, "female (of a furred animal)". [223], James Frazer wrote that "It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. Accessed at https://animaldiversity.org. [7] It secretes and perceives pheromones. In 2007, it was considered a subspecies, F. silvestris catus, of the European wildcat (F. silvestris) following results of phylogenetic research. [209], In ancient Egypt, cats were worshipped, and the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness. [5] Later taxonomists split the cat family into different genera. Diseases affecting domestic cats include acute infections, parasitic infestations, injuries, and chronic diseases such as kidney disease, thyroid disease, and arthritis. [23], The English puss, extended as pussy and pussycat, is attested from the 16th century and may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[106][107] or eating. Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature. [184] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized". [175], The domestic cat is a cosmopolitan species and occurs across much of the world. [144] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The Nubian word kaddîska "wildcat" and Nobiin kadīs are possible sources or cognates. [61] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth relative to the size of their jaw, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae. [162] Some cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[163] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. The common house cat is Felis catus. [217] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some feral cats can be successfully socialised and 're-tamed' for adoption; young cats, especially kittens[185] and cats that have had prior experience and contact with humans are the most receptive to these efforts. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". [66] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. Cat Location: Africa Asia Central-America Eurasia Europe North-America Oceania South-America. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[130] and the New Zealand merganser[137] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery. The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) was tamed independently in China around 5500 BC. 6. Who developed the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name? [172] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female attacks him. Some cat breeds are prone to having extra digits (“polydactyly”). [55] It is adaptable and now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands. [45], During domestication, cats have undergone only minor changes in anatomy and behavior, and they are still capable of surviving in the wild. [68] Polydactylous cats occur along North America's northeast coast and in Great Britain. The genus includes the domestic cat. It can hear a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs can hear ranges of about 9 octaves. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas. Its hearing sensitivity is enhanced by its large movable outer ears, the pinnae, which amplify sounds and help detect the location of a noise. [227] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[189] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[190] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[191] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat). A predator that is most active at dawn and dusk, the cat is a solitary hunter but a social species. Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[81] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands. As it speeds up walking to trotting, its gait changes to a "diagonal" gait: The diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.


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